fow pox

Fowl Pox, All You Need To Know About This Avian Disease

Fowl pox

Virtually no poultry farmer that has no experience with fowl pox at one time or the other. Fowl pox is a common poultry viral disease characterized by cutaneous lesions.


Although there is a diphtheritic (wet) form of the disease in which lesions appear in the mouth and upper respiratory tract.


This form of the disease is usually accompanied by cutaneous lesions in some chickens.


Diagnosis can be made on the basis of the clinical signs.


The disease was once prevalent in most poultry-producing countries but with the advent of vaccination, the incidence has been dramatically reduced.


Though in some areas it can still be of considerable economic importance where the knowledge of poultry farming is still limited.


However, because diagnosis and control of the disease are straightforward the impetus for research has been reduced.

fow pox


Recommended  for you:

Understanding the Cause of Poultry Diseases and What to Do If Your Chickens Are Sick

The 5 Lessons I Learned In Poultry Production the Hard Way from My Twelve 12 Years of Farming

All You Need In Order To Succeed In Poultry Farming


Causes of Fowl pox

Fowl pox virus is a member of the avipose genus of the family pox vindae. Other members are turkey pox. Pigeon pox, sparrow pox, canarypox, and quail pox.


The virus enters the cell by a process of endocytosis. Once inside the host enzymes degrade the structural protein.


Spread of the Disease

It is known that the fowl pox virus will not penetrate into the skin.


It is assumed that some breakage in the skin is required for the virus to enter the epithelial cells, replicate and cause disease.


The spread of the virus from one chicken to another by direct contact is probably a major factor in the spread of disease.


And the disease is known to spread slowly among the flock this phenomenon gives prompt action to avert further spread.


However, it has been shown that certain biting insects such as mosquitoes will transmit the disease making the disease more prevalent in mosquitoes and fly-prone areas.


In warm climates, this can result in a rapid spread of disease.


Recommended for you:
Understanding the Cause of Poultry Diseases and What to Do If Your Chickens Are Sick

How to Feed Your Noiler Chickens For Maximum Profits

Poultry Diseases That Affect Humans, And How to Protect Yourself against Them.


Signs and Symptoms of Fowl pox

The disease is usually spread slowly in the flock. And in some cases this may last several weeks sometimes the disease may only show the following symptoms:


  1. The rate of feed intake becomes low
  2. Poor weight gain
  • Lack of vigor in the flock.
  1. Difficulty in breathing or respiratory distress (wet form).
  2. Reduction in egg production


However, the cutaneous form is usually the predominant one in most disease outbreaks.


Its onset in the flock is often gradual and it may not be noted until the cutaneous lesions are obvious.


Cutaneous lesions appear on the un-feathered skin of the head, neck, legs, and feet.


Diphtheritic Form (wet) of Fowl Pox

In the diphtheritic form of the disease small white nodules are observed in the upper respiratory and digestive tracts.


Recommended for you:

3 Major Ways to Maintain a Healthy Chicken throughout the Rearing Period

Noiler Farming In Nigeria, the New Game Changer

Five (5) Solid Ways You Can Create Wealth through Poultry Farming


The Control of Fowl Pox

There is no satisfactory treatment, however, fowl pox can be prevented by vaccination.


Live vaccines derived from either fowl pox, turkey pox, or pigeon pox virus are available.


Various routes have been used for vaccination.


Great caution should be taken when administering the pox vaccine as it is a live type of virus vaccine. Because the pox vaccine produces a mild form of the disease.


Unhealthy birds should be excluded from vaccination.


Birds should be given multivitamins to help improve the immune system since it’s a viral disease that has no cure.


Mild antibiotics can be administered to take care of secondary infections that may arise.


Iodine can be used to treat the scabs on the face and un-feathered parts of the birds.


It is strongly recommended that all chickens in a house be vaccinated on the same day.


There are two main routes used:

  1. The wing web
  2. The thigh.


The vaccine is inoculated into the skin of the web, usually using a bifurcated needle, which has a groove that holds the vaccine fluid.


For the latter, feathers are removed from the thigh and vaccine brushed from the thigh and vaccine brushed into the resulting follicles.


Vaccination is usually done in areas where fowl pox is endemic or there have been outbreaks in the last season.


Most layers and breeders are vaccinated before they come into play, ideally 4 – 5 weeks before egg production starts.


It is best to vaccinate chickens when they are at least 6 weeks of age but vaccination may be required earlier than this in some instances.


In endemic areas of fowl pox, the first few affected birds should be culled and the remaining ones should be vaccinated upon.

Leave a Reply

Pin It on Pinterest