children drinking water

Water and Its Importance, Sources, Health Hazard Associated With It

Water the Liquid of Life

Water is the essence of life. We live on a water planet, with a precious layer of water. About 71 percent of the Earth’s surface is water-covered.


The oceans constitute 96.5 percent of all Earth’s water. Water is an amazing substance with unique properties that affect life on earth.


You could survive for several weeks without food but for only a few days without water. It is the basis for the fluids of the body.


About sixty percent of the total body weight of an average adult person is water.


Despite it important, water is one of our most poorly managed resources. We waste it and pollute it.


Water may well be our most essential nutrients. Without water, most people would die from dehydration effect in less than a week.

children drinking water

Children drinking water

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Importance of water

  • Water provides the medium for nutrient and waste transport and temperature control. And plays a key role in nearly all of our body biochemical reactions.


  • Water and electrolytes are essential constituents of cellular metabolism. It is not only a component of our body but also acts as a vehicle for chemical transport.


  • Water and electrolytes must be balanced. Water is ingested through food and also as drinking water. Apart from this, a considerable amount of water is formed in the tissues through the oxidation of carbohydrates, fats, and protein in their metabolism.


  • Water helps in waste disposal. The excretion through the kidneys and skin changes according to the climate conditions. In dry climate more perspiration and the cold weather, more urination takes place. Thirst occur if fluid intake is less.


  • Water also plays a key role in sculpting the earth, surface, moderating climate, and removing and diluting wastes and pollutants.

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Sources of Rainwater

Water is made up of hydrogen and oxygen. The drinking water that is supplied to our homes comes from two basic sources.


  • Surface water
  • Groundwater


Surface water, this includes:


  • Streams
  • Rivers
  • lakes 
  • Reservoirs 


Groundwater is derived below the grounds where it collects in pores, spaces within the rocks and underground aquifers, this includes:


  • Well, water.
  • Drilling boreholes pumping it to the surface tanks, reservoir, etc.


Other sources of water are the once provided by the government which includes the public water system. They get their water mainly from constructed dams, Streams Lake.


Hazards Associated with Ground/Surface Water

Human activities such as construction work, mining, farming, land clearing, landfill. Indiscriminate use of pesticides and herbicides.


And the nefarious use of chemicals in fishing activities. It poses a great danger to both surface and groundwater.


Chemicals and Materials from the land’s surface can move through the soil and end up in the groundwater.


Besides, untreated waste from septic tanks and toxic chemicals from underground storage tanks and leaky landfills can contaminate groundwater.

Bottled water

Bottle water

The Health Implication of Taking Contaminated Groundwater

 Drinking contaminated groundwater can have serious health implications.


It can lead to diseases such as hepatitis and dysentery may be caused by contamination from septic tank waste.


Poisoning may be caused by toxins that have leached into well water supplies. Wildlife can also be harmed by contaminated groundwater.


Other long term effects such as certain types of cancer may also result from exposure to polluted water.


Water Requirement of your Body System

The water requirement of a person varies with climate, age, activity, dietetic habits, and body build. Activity is an important factor that affects the water requirement.


When the activity is more intense more heat is produced and more water is needed to dissipate the heat produced. The type of food and diet also influences the water requirement.


A high mineral content increases the water requirement. Consumption of sweets demands extra water further dilution in the stomach.


Beverages like tea, coffee, and cocoa are diuretics and they stimulate the excretion of water.


If excess water is ingested the kidney responds to it’s after 20 – 50 minutes and the extra water is excreted within three hours.


Water is lost through urine, skin lungs fecal matter. In a normal healthy person, water intake and water loss are more or less equal.

Dangers of Dehydration

Dehydration occurs when water loss is not met by water intake. When there are water depletion changes occur in the body, fluids.


Thirst, weakness, loss of weight, dryness of the skin, mucous membranes, tachycardia, disorientation, and delirium are the symptoms manifested by dehydration.


If not corrected coma and death occur. The urine changes in its specific gravity, color, and concentration.


The salt level is diminished in the urine and serum levels of sodium, urea and chlorides are elevated. This results in cellular dehydration and vital organs fail to function. 


The overall advice is, to improve your overall health and wellbeing. Especially for those living in a hotter climate.


Always drink water at a certain interval, waiting until you are thirsty might not be a good signal that your body needs water. Always have water around you to avoid dehydration.

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