typhoid fever is best treated in the hospital by a qualified doctor

Basic Facts You Need To Know About Typhoid Fever

Basic Facts You Need To Know About Typhoid Fever

it’s a known fact that typhoid fever is more prevalent in warm tropical areas, both of these diseases may occur in other parts of the world, especially areas of the world with poor sanitation and limited access to clean water.

It is caused by a bacterium called Salmonella typhi, which is related to the bacteria that cause salmonella food poisoning.


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How typhoid fever disease is spread

  • Persons can contract typhoid fever from patients who have the disease, or from carriers.
  • Many of the carriers are food vendors and handlers. In a few cases, flies may bring germs into the house and contaminate the food.
  • Poor sanitation is usually the major culprit
  • Contaminated water both for drinking and cooking is usually the source of infection.
  • Infected milk is another source of infection. These sources are likely to be found in cities as well as in rural areas.
  • Germs enter the body through the mouth, Irritation and ulceration of the lower small bowel. (peyers patches).
  • It usually takes around about 9 days to two weeks for the disease to develop.
Typhoid fever is best treated in the hospital by a qualified Doctor

Typhoid fever is best treated in the hospital by a qualified Doctor


Symptoms of typhoid fever

  • The patient feels chilly, tired, and weak.
  • The victims complain of headaches and loss of appetite
  • Followed by nose bleeding, backache, and either diarrhoea or constipation.
  • Some other patients may have bronchitis, so in the early stages of typhoid, the disease may appear as pneumonia.
  • With a high temperature that remains high for about ten days to two weeks, then slowly comes down to normal by the end of the fourth week.
  • With poor treatment or if untreated the pulse rate becomes slow, and there may be rose-colored spots on the abdomen
  • By the second week, the patient may become Agitated, confused, delirious, seeing or hearing things that are not there (hallucinations).
  • Serious complications include severe sore throat, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, pneumonia, kidney disease, and inflammation of the nervous system.
  • Severe bleeding from the intestines may occur and even perforation through one of peyers patches. At times the heart may also be involved.


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Accurate and Proper Diagnosis of typhoid fever is Needed

It’s very important to note that typhoid fever symptoms may resemble other diseases for which an entirely different treatment may be required.

During the first week, typhoid germs are found in the bloodstream. At the end of the third week, the germs are also found in the urine.

The widal agglutination is a useful laboratory test which becomes positive during the second week of the disease.


Prevention of typhoid fever

  • Make sure all drinking water is either boiled or thoroughly purified.
  • Milk should be pasteurized or boiled before taking it
  • People who handle food should be carefully screened to be sure they are not carrying the germs of typhoid if possible avoid eating in public restaurants if you are not sure of their hygiene standard.
  • People travelling abroad should be given the triple vaccine for protection against typhoid fever.


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The Treatment of typhoid fever

Good nursing care is highly important in this disease.

All members of the family should be given the vaccine to minimize any further spread of the infection.

The typhoid conjugate vaccine is recommended for use in children from 6 months of age and in adults up to 45 years or 65 years (depending on the vaccine).

Two typhoid conjugate vaccines have been prequalified by WHO since December 2017 and are being introduced into childhood immunization programmes in typhoid-endemic countries.

The patient should also be given plenty of fluids and a light general diet without any roughage or spices. Many physicians recommend a diet consisting entirely of liquids, milk, and fruit juice, given in 8-ounce amounts every two hours.

This diet should continue for one week after the fever has disappeared and then the patient should gradually return to a general diet over a period of several days.

The mouth and teeth should be kept clean.

If the mouth is dry, give the patient chewing gum to encourage the flow of saliva.

The skin should be kept clean and dry, and the patient given cooling sponges two or three times a day to reduce the fever.

Active leg and arm exercises to prevent complications in the veins. Severely ill patients will benefit from injections of ACTH or cortisone,

Patients complaining of headaches should be given the benefit of an ice pack.

Be careful in using aspirin because of complications that may follow.

Patients should avoid self-medication, typhoid fever could be tricky a lot of damage could be ongoing beneath the surface.

In most cases before the patient and his family or relatives realize, the damage has already been done.

This is why all symptoms and different forms of fever should be taken seriously.

For proper diagnosis and treatment, it should be done in a standard hospital.


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